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Montenegro

Legal System Established Romano-Germanic (continental) system of law.
The System of the Common State Registrar The company records (name, registration data, shareholder, director, address) are kept by the public registry. The registering authority is the Central Registry of the Commercial Court.
Registration Procedure The documents certified by a notary are submitted on paper to the Registrar. The confirmation of the payment of the share capital and that of the registration fee should be submitted to the Registrar. The beneficial owner is not required to be present at the registration and filing procedures.
E-Registration Not available.
Pre-incorporation Procedures (statement of compliance, affidavit, etc) Prior certification of documents by a notary is required.
Company Name Prior approval of the name is required. Name of a company shall contain the words "Limited Liability Company" or "LLC".
Incorporation Documents Memorandum & Articles of Association.
Share Capital The minimum share capital is EUR 1. Most common: EUR 1000 divided into 1000 shares with par value of EUR 1 each. Payment of the share capital may be made "in cash" or "in kind". Half of the share capital must be deposited in a local bank at the time of registration. Bearer shares are not allowed.
Beneficial Owner The beneficial owner can be any physical person. Information about the beneficiary is not reflected in the Registrar.
Shareholder At least one shareholder.  Maximum of 30 shareholders for private companies.  Transfer of shares into trust and use of nominee shareholder is allowed.
Director Minimum of one director.
Secretary A secretary is not required.
Registered office A registered office in Montenegro is required.
Residency Is determined by the place of management of the company.
Income Tax 9%
Taxes on Dividends 9%
Taxes on Capital Gains 9%
Taxes on Interest/Royalties 9%
Tax Withheld at Source None.
VAT 17%
Specific National Taxes and Levies None.
Reporting Each year is fully reported in accordance with the IFRS.
Audit Mandatory annual audit and reporting to the tax authorities and Registrar.
Cost Accounting Rules Costs must be justified and documented.
Tax Administration Formal, in accordance with the requirements of the law.
Use of Tax Treaties Over 47 countries, including the Russian Federation.
Terms of Use of Tax Preferences Tax residency.
Controlled Foreign Corporation in Jurisdictions with Low Tax (CFC) Income of controlled companies registered in low-tax jurisdictions is not counted as part of the company's income and is not grounds for denying the application of tax allowances.
Disclosure of Information There are official channels of information disclosure. Information about beneficiaries is revealed by the decision of a Court.
Language Communication with public authorities, courts and banks may be made in Montenegrin and/or English. 
Registration of Company From EUR 1 500.
Administration of Company From EUR 500 per year.
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