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The Netherlands

Legal System Established the Romano-Germanic (Continental) system of law.
The System of the Common State Registrar The company records (name, registration date, shareholder, director, address) are kept the public registry. The registering authority is The Chamber of Commerce.
Registration Procedure The documents certified by a notary are submitted on paper to the Registrar. The share capital must be fully paid. The beneficial owner is not required to be presented at the registration and filing procedures.
E-Registration Not available.
Pre-incorporation Procedures (statement of compliance, affidavit, etc) Prior certification of documents by a notary.
Company Name Prior approval of the name is required. The name can be in any language that uses the Latin alphabet. In some cases, translation may be required. Words associated with governmental or public patronage may not be used.
Incorporation Documents Memorandum & Articles of Association. Original documents shall be prepared and kept in Dutch. The client receives the English translation, certified by a licensed Advocate.
Share Capital The minimum share capital is EUR 1. Payment of the share capital may be made "in cash" (bank transfer) or "in kind". Registered shares only; bearer shares are not permitted.
Beneficial Owner The beneficial owner can be any physical person. Information about the beneficiary is not reflected in the Registrar. 
Shareholder At least one shareholder (physical person or legal entity). Transfer of shares into trust is allowed.
Director At least one director. The director may be a physical person or a legal entity.
Secretary Not required.
Registered office A registered office in the Netherlands is required.
Residency Is determined by the place of management of the company.
Income Tax
20% on income up to EUR 200.000
25% on income over EUR 200.000
Taxes on Dividends
25%, except:
- at least 5% shareholding
- the investments are not the portfolio ones
Taxes on Capital Gains
20%, except:
- at least 5% shareholding
- the investments are not the portfolio ones
Taxes on Interest/Royalties
20% on income up to EUR 200.000
25% on income over EUR 200.000
Tax Withheld at Source
Tax on dividends is 15%, except:
- at least 5% shareholding
- the investments are not the portfolio ones**
Royalties - none.
VAT 21%. VAT is levied on sales of goods and services and on import from non-European countries.
Specific National Taxes and Levies The annual government fee.
Reporting Each year is fully reported in accordance with the IFRS.
Audit Annual audit is required, from which only small companies* are exempt.
Cost Accounting Rules Costs must be justified and documented.
Tax Administration Formal, in accordance with the requirements of the law.
Use of Tax Treaties More than 80 countries.
Terms of Use of Tax Preferences Tax residency.
Controlled Foreign Corporation in Jurisdictions with Low Tax (CFC) Releasing on the basis of ownership shares is not permitted.
Disclosure of Information There are official channels of information disclosure. Information about beneficiaries is revealed by the decision of a Court.
Language Communication in public administration, courts and banks may be made in Dutch and/or English.
Registration of Company From EUR 7 000.
Administration of Company From EUR 15 000 per year.

* A company is recognized as small if it meets two of the following three criteria:

- the amount of net sales per year is up to EUR 8.8 million;
- the value of assets is up to EUR 4.4 million;
- number of employees is up to 50 people.

** From January 1, 2017, the tax on dividends withheld from non-resident legal entities and individuals can be refunded if the recipient of the dividends and beneficiary is a resident of an EU/EEA member state. The amount of compensation is equal to the amount of tax in excess of income tax payable if the recipient was a resident of the Netherlands.